Addouri Outlines Anti-U.S. Strategy, Tactics of Resistance
By Nicola Nasser* Jun 5, 2008
Axis of Logic
For the first time since the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in April 2003,
the deputy of Saddam Hussein, the late President of Iraq, Izzat
Ibrahim Addouri has resurfaced, despite a $10 million U.S. bounty on
his head, in a lengthy interview with Abdel-Azim Manaf, the
editor-in-chief of the Egyptian newspaper Al-Mawqif Al-Arabi, not a
mainstream, on May 26 to lay out the strategy and tactics of the
Iraqi resistance led by the former ruling party, Al-Baath. Addouri's
resurface and the resistance strategy he has laid out represent a
direct challenge to the U.S. occupying power.
Manaf told The Associated Press (AP) he interviewed addouri "on the
battlefield." The "dialogue" was conducted "with a commander in his
lion's den and among his soldiers," in the "war zone" and on the
"combat field while weapons were talking," Manaf said in his
introduction. Addouri spoke in his capacity as "the Supreme Commander
of the Jihad and Liberation Front, the Pan-Arab Secretary General of
the Al-Baath Arab Socialist Party and the Secretary of Iraq Region,"
the Egyptian editor added.
The AP said "Addouri is believed to play an important role in
financing" the resistance, "though little is known about how directly
he leads fighters on the ground." However the U.S. occupying power,
as well as Iran and the Iranian-allied regime Washington brought
about in Baghdad after the occupation, have been keen to downplay the
role played by Addouri and his party in the national resistance and
instead highlight the marginal role played by Al-Qaeda, which was
brought into Iraq for the first time ever thanks to U.S., and other
If history could illuminate current events, Addouri's reference to
this "blackout" media policy is vindicated by the precedent of the
U.S. – British planning for the coup that brought down the Iranian
leader Mohamed Musaddiq's government in August 1953, which installed
the Shah in power.
"One key aspect of the plot was to portray the demonstrating mobs
(against Musaddiq, which was 'a mercenary mob. It had no ideology.
The mob was paid for by American dollars.') as supporters of the
Iranian Communist Party - Tudeh … As in every other British and US
military intervention until the collapse of the USSR, the `communist
threat' scenario was deployed as the Official Story … The real threat
of nationalism (and dirtier aims like protecting oil profits) were
downplayed or removed from the picture presented to the public."
[Mark Curtis, "Web of Deceit," Vintage, 2003]
In Iraq, the U.S. propaganda machine has only replaced the "communist
threat" by that of Al-Qaeda.
Manaf, in his introduction, noted how much Addouri was a dedicated
religious man, very well versed in Islamic theology and Arab history,
and familiar with Sufism. His Arab and Islamic culture was reflected
extensively in his answers, which were full of quotations from the
Holy Quarn and the sayings of historic Arab and Muslim leaders, a
fact that makes the translation of his interview into English an
impossible mission sometimes.
Addouri identified Al-Baath as a "revolutionary organization, a brave
and innovative leadership, an armed revolutionary Jihadist
organization; it represents a fearless army and glorious armed
Denying media reports about his ill health (born July 1, 1942),
Addouri confirmed that, "I am in good health and at the height of the
Jihad spirit," adding that, "today, I believe I am immigrating to God
and His Prophet," and "left the world, myself and its fortunes behind
my back" to be totally dedicated to and "garrisoned for God and for
His Sake" until "either victory or martyrdom."
Three Chapters of Resistance
"Our resistance and battle with the (U.S.) occupier is not new,"
Addouri said. "It started during the early years of Al-Baath
formation to expand and deepen after the glorious Tammuz (July)
revolution of 1968 … Prior to 2003, the imperialist enemy used local
forces from Iraq, and the (Arab) nation sometimes; other times it
used regional powers to fight us on its behalf. When its local and
regional instruments failed to stop the Pan-Arab renaissance march of
Iraq, the U.S. enemy directly entered the field of struggle and
combat, amassed great powers, and led the invasion and occupation by
He identified three stages of the Iraqi resistance to the U.S.-led
invasion and occupation.
"The first chapter was the official showdown, when the regular
formations of the brave armed forces stood up to the U.S. invasion;
then the launch of the popular confrontation against the invasion,
which inter-wined with this chapter. The popular, official and
military integration occurred immediately and the people's war of
liberation started during the first week of the invasion, as was
planned by the leadership and according to its strategy."
During this second chapter of the resistance formations from the
civil organizations of the party, Fedayeen Saddam and volunteers took
part in carrying our "martyrdom operations." The "glorious women of
Iraq participated in the first formations of the popular resistance."
Some of those women carried out "martyrdom operations, the first of
which was the heroic operation carried out by two women in Baghdad on
the third day of the occupation; another operation was carried out by
a glorious Iraqi woman in Al-Nassiriyah south of Iraq."
The "third chapter is sustaining the resistance and continuing the
battle until the liberation of Iraq." Addouri said that during the
occupation more than one million and three hundred thousand Iraqis
fell martyrs, and "so far the number of Al-Baath martyrs in this
battle amounts to one hundred and twenty thousand."
He sees "this historic decisive showdown," which he described as "the
holy battle," as the "fate and the responsibility of Al-Baath as much
as it is the responsibility of the great people of Iraq and its
Jihadist national, Pan-Arab and Islamic powers, and the free people
of our (Arab) nation and humanity as a whole," all who were "targeted
by the invasion."
Ready to Negotiate U.S. Withdrawal
Addouri sounded definitely confident of victory and reiterated that
the U.S.-led occupation has already been defeated, and "in despair is
looking for an exit." The resistance "has destroyed the alliance of
evil, the parties of which are escaping one after another. Only (U.S.
President George W.) Bush remains blundering in his debacle," he
Replying to questions about the truth in media reports that there
were "contacts between you and the Americans," whether he made any
"direct or indirect contact with official U.S. authorities," whether
"you are willing to negotiate with the Americans" and if the answer
was positive "what are your negotiating terms," "would you lead the
negotiations personally" or would authorize others to negotiate,
would such negotiations be bilateral (between Al-Baath and the U.S.)
or in the name of the resistance "front," and whether he was sure
that the yield of the negotiations would correspond to the real
weight of the resistance on the ground, "as the saying goes, you
cannot reach at the negotiating table farther than your artillery can
reach," Addouri said:
"Friends and foes" are very well aware of our strategy (below), which
was made public by the media; "Al-Baath doesn't negotiate with
anybody at all if they don't recognize this strategy beforehand, and
will negotiate neither with America nor with intermediaries or
friends except on this basis. If the enemy recognized this strategy
we will sit with them directly, negotiate with them, and help them
exit our country without loosing face and will facilitate their exit.
Prior to this recognition, there are no negotiations with the
"Al-Baath will meet with whoever it decides to meet, except with the
Zionist entity (Israel) and the government of collaborators in the
Green Zone … We will be happy when the enemy is convinced of its
defeat, accepts our strategy, sits with us to negotiate a program for
its implementation," he added.
Addouri detailed his strategy, indicating that "any negotiations with
the invaders without it represents a desertion and treason, and is
refused by all national, Pan-Arab and Islamic factions of the
An official pronounced recognition of the armed and unarmed national
resistance, including all its factions and (political) parties, as
the sole legitimate representative of the people of Iraq.
An official declaration of unconditional withdrawal from Iraq by the
Declaring null and void all the political and legislative
institutions, as well as all the laws and legislations issued by
them, since the occupation, with the deBaathization law in the
forefront, and compensating all who were adversely affected by them.
A stop to raids, prosecutions, arrests, killings and displacement.
Release of all prisoners of war (POWs), prisoners and detainees
without exception and compensating all for their physical and
Reinstating the army and the national security forces in service in
accordance with their pre-occupation laws and regulations, and
compensating all who were adversely affected by dissolving them.
A pledge to compensate Iraq for all the material and moral losses it
incurred because of the occupation. Iraqi Tactics of Guerrilla War
Addouri detailed his concept of "the people's war of liberation and
the guerilla war," advised the resistance fighters to "adhere to the
principles and rules" of this kind of war and listed fifteen "most
effective" tactics to hurt the enemy.
First, he said, "appear quickly behind, in front and on the sides of
the enemy as dictated by the nature of the place, time, climate of
the operation, and the type and nature of the target, then hit
quickly and disappear quickly before the enemy could have time to
Second, "In planning, implementing and selecting of the target take
care to hit a kill in the enemy," he added.
Third, "your weapon is your life, so take care to keep it always
ready and away from the eyes of the enemy and its spies."
Four, "protect the security of information … as a red line or a holy
matter" and trust nobody "because trust is endless in society."
Five, "the enemy is blind without spies, so exert all efforts to
disclose and liquidate them."
Six, "don't be taken away by your successive victories" or attracted
by "showing off" or loose your self-control by praise of your heroic
acts, to be a big mouth boasting of your success, "noting that the
enemy is hunting you at all times, so keep discreet, disguised and
Seven, "inflict the biggest losses in the ranks of the enemy and
decrease to the minimum your own losses."
Eight "make your hands heavy at the enemy during their rest hours"
and make "no place safe" for them and give them no time to recover."
Nine, "the supply lines are the enemy's lifeline," so "concentrate on
and cut" these lines.
Ten, "concentrate on the enemy's bases, camps and headquarters day
and night" to "break its morale."
Eleven, "take your time to deal with high extreme accuracy with the
traitors and spies to avoid hurting innocents."
Twelve, "expand the circle of monitoring, following up and hunting
the enemy … so it doesn't surprise us."
Thirteen, "sustain your traditional ties with your relatives,
neighbors, neighborhood and friends and make these ties deeper and
more intimate, but don't make any of them feel you have a mission
they don't understand" and "help them to overcome the details of
daily life hardships, which are so many nowadays" so they will
protect you when in trouble and don't hand you over to the enemy;
they are "your safe armor and honest cover."
Fourteen, "let belief in God … be our strong starting point."
Fifteen, "fight for the sake of God the enemies of God … until the
tyrant … invaders are defeated, until the clear-cut victory, the
liberation of the homeland, and raising the flag of `There Is No God
but The God' and bringing back the `Flag of God Is the Greatest' to
fly in Iraq skies," Addouri confirmed. Other Excerpts:
Manaf: It is noted that the Iraqi resistance started immediately
after the desecration of the Iraq land by the U.S. forces. How could
it (the resistance) have started and grown so quickly?
Addouri: "Al-Baath Arab Socialist Party is the party of Iraq and the
Arab nation … It did not lay arms or stop fighting even for an hour
during day and night and its Jihadist march did not stop any time …
It wasn't surprised by what happened, but increased … its
determination not to be exhausted to relentlessly fight the invaders,
their stooges and spies whatever the sacrifices are and regardless of
how long it would take until full victory and the liberation of
Role of Army Rank and File
Manaf: What role the officers and ranks of the Iraqi armed forces
play in resistance?
Addouri: Today they play "a heroic and decisive role in the march of
the resistance. In addition to their Jihadist fighting role through
their own formations … under the flag of the General Command of the
Armed Forces, they are, in accordance with the guidance of the party'
(Al-Baath) leadership and the General Command of the Armed Forces,
dispersed into other Jihad factions where they act as field
commanders, planners, technicians, makers and developers of most of
the various weapons of the resistance. They represent the soul of the
resistance and the secret of its innovations, accurate performance
New `Unprecedented' Methods
Manaf: What distinguishes the Iraqi resistance? How was it able to
fight the occupier in open areas?
Addouri: "The resistance depended on the rules and principles of
people's wars and the guerrilla war, after developing its fighting
methods and tactics, and was innovative in its logistic and special
operations. More important, it has adapted the Iraqi environment to
serve the people's war. Through practice, it has developed" those
rules very much "to move quickly" so to make "all the land is ours
and all the time is ours," and to be up to date to what is new by the
enemy in order to "confront it with innovative new of our own."
"We have made and innovated new ways and methods unprecedented in the
people's wars of liberation, or even in the intelligence sciences … I
cannot go into more details for security reasons; this is what kept
the resistance" and its leadership a " mysterious secret, humiliating
the enemy, its collaborators and spies."
Al-Baath Live and … Recruiting
Manaf: Do your resistance formations disperse equally to cover the
area of Iraq now or they are concentrated in certain areas and
Addouri: "The party (Al-Baath) is more than half a century old in
Iraq … the organization of Al-Baath today … is stronger many times
than it was before the occupation … (I will not elaborate) for
reasons Al-Baath will speak out on time." Today the party disperses
in all the cities, villages, plains, mountains and deserts of Iraq;
outside Iraq it also disperses among Iraqis wherever they are in
every Arab or foreign country."
After the occupation, despite "the strict conditions" for joining the
party and the deBaathization campaign, "thousands joined the party,
mostly young people aged between 16 and 25. Tens of thousands of
other Iraqis joined the resistance factions led by Al-Baath."
"In the end the National, Pan-Arab and Islamic Front emerged;
Al-Baath is one of its basic pillars."
No outside Support
Manaf: The Iraqi resistance is unique in the fact that it has no
Arab, regional or international incubator or support; how could
Al-Baath have provided for sustaining the resistance strong and
Addouri: "Our resistance … not only has no incubator outside the
borders of its country, but what is worse and more bitter is that 99
percent of the influential world powers are either directly involved
with the enemy against it or sympathize with the enemy; the one
percent, which sympathizes with the resistance, turned its back to it
fearing its enemies, but God provided for it and made it in no need
for them. The people of Iraq have provided their money and offspring;
it is an inexhaustible source."
Manaf: Some say the role of Al-Baath in the resistance is limited.
What is the size of the Al-Baath-led resistance?
Addouri: "The occupying enemy and its regional and local partners
have launched a genocide against the Baathists, their families,
supporters and sympathizers. The collaborators' constitution, which
was prepared by the CIA, includes a Nazi racist article stipulating
the liquidation of Al-Baath as an organization, thought and persons."
"They targeted by physical liquidation, destruction and displacement
the society of the party to the sixth neighbor."
"One of the most important and dangerous deBaathization methods,
after assassinations and physical liquidation of Baathists, is the
attempt to completely censor the role of Al-Baath on the field as a
resisting party and an armed resistance, and to smear it image and
"Had Al-Baath not been the initiator of resistance since the first
day of the invasion and occupation, and had it not acted as if the
battle is its own and the cause is its own cause, the world could not
have seen the emergence of the strongest national resistance
immediately following the invasion."
"The other Jihad factions emerged after the resistance was deeply
rooted in confronting the occupier and undermining its strategy; some
of them were formed and started to act three years after the
Operations Documented on CDs
"The backbone" of the "wide and strong base of Jihad today is the
resistance of Al-Baath and the national, Pan-Arab and Islamic forces,
with those members of the Higher Command of Jihad and Liberation in
the forefront, who cover the whole area of Iraq," from Um-Qaser in
the south to Zakho in the north and from al-Qaem in the west to
Khanqeen and Mandali in the east.
This resistance is targeted by imposing a media, economic and
political siege on it to black out its military operations, political
activities and its destructive physical and psychological influence
on the soldiers of the occupying power and its forces in Iraq.
"Don't you see how the invaders, collaborators, traitors, spies,
renegades … despite their differences on many other things, have
agreed to censor its role and action and instead inflated … the claim
that it (the resistance) is terrorism?"
"I have documented over the past five years on CDs thousands of
operations against the enemy … while the enemy is highlighting the
role of other groups, some of which was directly formed or via
intermediaries by the occupation itself, and some other were formed
by foreign powers hostile to Iraq … who kill the people on ID"
(Addouri explicitly was referring to sectarian militias formed by
Iran, but did not mention Iran by name).
Pluralistic Future System
Manaf: How do you perceive the ongoing political process in Iraq?
What is you comment on reported reconciliation conferences under the
auspices of the League of Arab States?
Addouri: "No truce with those … and (we'll) resist whatever entity is
established under occupation and in its service, first among them the
traitors' government in the Green Zone."
Manaf: Do you have a strategy to administer the ruling of Iraq after
Addouri: Since the first day of the occupation Al-Baath called for
"the unity of the resistance as a historical necessity." With
endeavor and persistence the party succeeded in forming the
"National, Pan-Arab and Islamic Front in 2005" then the "Jihad and
Liberation Front for armed factions (33 armed resistance factions
according to him) on the field in September 2007. Both fronts are
open to all anti-occupation armed and political forces" to achieve
more unity during the liberation and post-liberation.
Al-Baath has never adopted a one-party stance; it doesn't "believe in
and refuses the one party theory." However in the past, and "for
objective circumstances," it offered "the theory of the leading
"Al-Baath deeply and principally believes in the creation of a
pluralistic national democratic system in which power is
democratically rotated on the basis of ballot boxes through free,
transparent and fair elections."
Every deviation from this in the past "falls within the context of
the mistakes" of the Al-Baath march.
Committed to Turkish Autonomy
Manaf: What is your program to deal with the Kurdish question after
Addouri: "We are confident that our Kurdish people will not get their
national and cultural rights … except within the unity of … a free,
liberated, independent and prosperous Iraq … Al-Baath Party will
remain committed to the historical March 1970 statement and the 1974
Law of Autonomy as the basis for dealing with the national, cultural
and political rights of our Kurdish people in Iraq."
Manaf: Recently the anti-U.S. occupation "Freedom and Justice Party
of Kurdistan" was publicly founded; what role do you expect this
party to play in Kurdistan?
Addouri: Two Kurdish parties were founded in the name of freedom and
justice party of Kurdistan, one chaired by Johar al-Hirki, the son of
a prominent Iraqi Kurdish family, which is loyal to the people of
Iraq, and the other chaired by the "brother fighter" Arshad Zibari.
Both have made a lot of sacrifices from their families and tribes
against the occupation and in defense of Iraq freedom and
"The birth of both parties will contribute to strengthening and
expanding the Kurdish national movement against the occupation and
* Nicola Nasser is a veteran Arab journalist based in Bir Zeit, West
Bank of the Israeli-occupied Palestinian territories.